Even supposing this invention were available we should feel there was little point in trying to make a "thinking machine" more human by dressing it up in such artificial flesh. It will be noticed that he does not assert that the machines in question had not got the property, but rather that the evidence available to Lady Lovelace did not encourage her to believe that they had it.
Through experimentation of the machine and teaching methods you could emulate an evolutiontionary process. Instead of programming into a computer every little nugget of human knowledge and understanding, and the relations between, Turing argues that a program must be written that directs a computer to learn.
There is no theoretical difficulty in the idea of a computer with an unlimited store. Turing asserts "a machine can undoubtably be its own subject matter. These choices make the difference between a brilliant and a footling reasoner, not the difference between a sound and a fallacious one.
He finally asks if a machine could be made to be supercritical. It will be seen that as a consequence of this all digital computers are in a sense equivalent.
Consolation would be more appropriate: Constructing instruction tables is usually described as "programming. Property ii means that no machine can compute correctly the procedure unless it is human intelligent.
When a burnt child fears the fire and shows that he fears it by avoiding it, I should say that he was applying scientific induction.
Fifty or so years debating over the issue, and the imitation game involving machines has been performed again and again. The situation could be regarded as analogous to that which would occur if the interrogator were talking to himself and one of the competitors was listening with his ear to the wall.
It is probably wise to include a random element in a learning machine, this is rather useful when we are searching for a solution of some problem. Again I do not know what the right answer is, but I think both approaches should be tried. It is true that a discrete-state machine must be different from a continuous machine.
No mechanism could feel and not merely artificially signal, an easy contrivance pleasure at its successes, grief when its valves fuse, be warmed by flattery, be made miserable by its mistakes. God has given an immortal soul to every man and woman, but not to any other animal or to machines.
It means that we need a general theory offering common characteristics of intelligent agents and specific metrics to test for it. But which are the best ones to start with? Intelligent behaviour presumably consists in a departure from the completely disciplined behaviour involved in computation, but a rather slight one, which does not give rise to random behaviour, or to pointless repetitive loops.
But there the systematic method is not possible. By observing the results of its own behaviour it can modify its own programmes so as to achieve some purpose more effectively.
How could one keep track of the different genetical combinations that had been tried, so as to avoid trying them again? Learning Machines In the process of trying to imitate an adult human mind we are bound to think a good deal about the process which has brought it to the state that it is in.
A mechanical fault would probably show itself through an unsuitable decision as to what sort of a mistake to make in the arithmetic.Computing Machinery and Intelligence A.
M. Turing 1 The Imitation Game I propose to consider the question, \Can machines think?" This should begin. In my Religion and Philosophy course, we used Turing as an example of what it means to be human and what human intelligence means.
This is explored in the mind/body problem–can human intelligence even be isolated?
Turing starts his seminal paper «Computing Machinery and Intelligence» by asking «can machines think». As he himself recognized, this is a problem that demands being equated in a more practical way.
COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE danger of circularity of argument. We avoid this by giving an outline of the means by which the desired effect is achieved. A digital computer can usually be regarded as consisting of three parts: (i) Store.
(ii) Executive unit. (iii) Control. Alan Mathison Turing (23 June – 7 June ), was an English mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist.
He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which played a significant role in the creation of the modern computer/5(35).
In critiquing his new problem, Turing was satisfied with the clear line drawn between physical and intellectual capacities of humans by the separation of rooms and use of written communication. He remarked that there is little point in a ‘thinking machine’ looking, sounding or feeling like a human for the purpose of testing intelligence.Download