The ratio of the standard deviation of the reduced validation set to the SEP [i. The relatively poor performances of the individual sugar calibrations are attributed to the combination of their low concentration, difficulty in precise chemical measurement, and their spectral similarity.
The spectral differences among the sugars were very small. Summary of the PLS regression statistics for the NIR-based models of the individual and combined concentrations of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in intact mango fruit.
This pattern was also apparent in the third loading plots, with fructose and glucose behaving similarly in the to nm water band region, and sucrose and SSC shifted toward lower end of this region.
In contrast, sucrose and total sugar content decreased between early and mature harvests, then increased to highest levels at late harvest in se and su phenotypes. For this loading, SSC was the most different, although all four analytes demonstrated the same overall response.
Our results indicate that a refractometer should not be used to estimate total sugars or sucrose of sweet corn. According to Luckorganic and inorganic solutes affect the spectral water absorption bands through alteration of the distribution of its hydrogen bands. A plot of predicted versus measured readings of SSC for this second case is shown in Fig.
Loadings of the first three factors of the PLS regression models for sugars fructose, glucose, and sucrose and SSC, and the second derivative point Savitzky-Golay convolution, second order polynomial of spectra of these pure sugars in a matrix of sodium sulfate.
Sugar concentration varied within phenotypes at each maturity level. In a new window Table 3. Spectral differences among the sugars are displayed by their first three PLS loadings in Fig.
Low concentrations promote the disruption of water hydrogen bonding, whereas high concentrations produce the opposite effect. This relationship was most affected by maturity, especially mature and late harvested sweet corn. Such changes affect absorption magnitude and frequency of vibration.
Scatter plots of NIR versus reference values for the individual sugar models and the sum of all three sugars model are depicted in Fig.
Modeling performance of the individual sugars and their sum are summarized in Table 3. The extent of the vibration or wavelength shift and the direction thereof, whether the shift is toward lower wavelengths indicative of a disruption in the hydrogen bonding among the water molecules or higher wavelengths enhancement of water hydrogen bonding is noted to depend on the concentration of the sugar Giangiacomo, Sh2 indicated no difference in sucrose and total sugars at early and mature harvests, but increased at late harvest.
In conclusion, we find that when using NIR technology for assessing mango ripeness and quality, SSC, compared with the concentrations of the individual sugars fructose, glucose, and sucroseshould continue to be the preferred constituent that is measured, followed by sucrose.
Unlike the derivative and first loading plots, the second loading plots displayed a wavelength shift in peak absorption at to nm, with sucrose and SSC located near nm and fructose and glucose located near nm.
Additionally, the mango ripening stage brings on the increase in fructose and glucose and a reduction in titrable acidity Selvaraj et al.
Early, mature, and late harvested samples differed in sucrose and total sugar content.
Notes We thank Mrs. The use or mention of any commercial product does not imply any endorsement of that product or any better suitability than other similar products by the authors or the U. With removal of the most outlying and second most outlying samples, the SEP dropped to 1.
The technique may be useful for segregating fruit by level of SSC at all stages between the packing house and the retail store. Hence, sucrose appears to have a greater effect in disrupting water structure i. Also shown are the second derivative spectra of the individual sugars in an aqueous medium upper graph.
Among phenotypes, sucrose, total sugar, and SSC were poorly correlated. The coefficient of determination R2 ranged from 0. The circled point in Graph B corresponds to the outlier that, along with its corresponding reading from the opposite side of the fruit, was removed for reanalysis of the partial least squares calibration, as reported in Table 3.
The region of greatest difference, near the downward peak at nm, coincided with a shoulder in the second derivative at to nm, which also showed variation among the sugars.soluble solids nondestructive The United States imports nearly all of the mangoes that its population consumes, estimated in value for (the latest available year) at $ million (U.S.
Department of Agriculture, ). Soluble solid concentration can be determined in a small sample of fruits juice using a hand held refractometer. The measurement must be made at 20°C to get an accurate value. The measurement must be made at 20°C to get an accurate value.
In this paper, the NIR spectroscopy was adopted for the rapid determination of Total organic carbon (TOC) and soluble solids contents (SSC) in 4 kinds of Tanreqing injection intermediates, and during the calibration process, different chemometrics methods were applied, and the final result was calculated through the consensus strategy of linear.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Determination of Total Soluble Solids Content (Brix) and pH in Milk Drinks and Industrialized Fruit Juices | Objective: To analyze the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC) - Brix refratometry and pH values of milk drinks (yogurts and chocolate drink) and fruit juices ready to drink (FJRD).
Clean the instrument after each use with distilled water. Dry with a soft tissue (Kimwipe). B. Calibrate with a drop of distilled water. Adjust reading to 0 oBrix if necessary with the small set-screw on the back. Verify accuracy with a drop of 5 or 10% sucrose solution (5 grams sugar in mls of distilled water).
C. Soluble solids concentration (SSC) was high in su and se compared to the lower SSC of sh 2.
Early, mature, and late harvested samples differed in sucrose and total sugar content. Early, mature, and late harvested samples differed in .Download