Africa Today, 40 379— These types of patterns are projected to continue as future generations come of age. But conversion patterns are complex and varied.
The global Buddhist population will be about the same size it was inwhile the Hindu and Jewish populations will be larger than they are today. In Europe, for instance, the Muslim share of the population is expected to increase from 5. In some countries, it is fairly common for adults to leave their childhood religion and switch to another faith.
In particular, they provide generous child-care subsidies, tax incentives, and flexible work schedules designed to make it easier to bear and raise children, and some even provide couples outright cash payments when they have an additional child.
The bigger problem with emphasizing food supply as the problem, however, is that scarcity is largely a myth. In the United States, for example, the share of the population that belongs to other religions is projected to more than double — albeit from a very small base — rising from 0.
But working with researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, the Pew Research Center has developed an innovative way of using data on past migration patterns to estimate the religious composition of migrant flows in the decades ahead.
The number of people under age 18 declined bybetween andwhile the number of elderly increased byWhile the data collection and projection methodology were guided by our consultants and advisers, the Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.
The decline in U. In findings from their own research, these sociologists add, hunger lessens when nations democratize, when political rights are protected, and when gender and ethnic inequality is reduced. However, a sustained drop in immigration levels and fertility rates would slow the pace of minority population growth.
What are these inequalities? As a result, population growth slows, and, as we saw earlier, it has become quite low or even gone into a decline in several industrial nations. Estimates from other sources on the size of additional groups in this category can be found in the sidebar in Chapter 2.
Bill Webster created the graphics and Stacy Rosenberg and Ben Wormald oversaw development of the interactive data presentations and the Global Religious Futures website. The impact of migration can be seen in the examples shown in the graph at the right, which compares projection scenarios with and without migration in the regions where it will have the greatest impact.
All told, the unaffiliated are expected to add 97 million people and lose 36 million via switching, for a net gain of 61 million by For example, Russia has become quite wealthy selling fossil fuels such as oil, which are now high-priced, and in addition, its economy has expanded from a very low nadir due to the economic crisis of the late s.
Conrad Hackett was the lead researcher and primary author of this report. Both figures are rounded to 0. Demographic transition theory links population growth to the level of technological development across three stages of social evolution.
And the projections assume that people gradually are living longer in most countries.
Much of the worldwide growth of Islam and Christianity, for example, is expected to take place in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the heavy concentration of Christians and Muslims in this high-fertility region, both groups would increase as a percentage of the global population.
Paid maternity and paternity leave policies can also be used as an incentive. An introduction to concepts and issues 11th ed. Population projections are estimates built on current population data and assumptions about demographic trends, such as declining birth rates and rising life expectancies in particular countries.
For more details on how and where switching was modeled, see the Methodology. For these nations, population growth will be a serious problem if food and other resources are not adequately distributed. In other words, both the total and per capita GDP in both countries grew more rapidly after than before.
But bythese patterns had reversed: If the projected Jewish numbers were expanded to include cultural or ethnic Jews, it is possible that the size of the more broadly defined Jewish population might be greater than the projected number of U.
India will retain a Hindu majority but also will have the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, surpassing Indonesia. Although world population growth is slowing, then, it is still growing too rapidly in much of the developing and least developed worlds.
For details on how the projections were made, see Chapter 1. For the purposes of the religious group projections in this report, people who identify their religion as atheist, agnostic or nothing in particular are categorized as unaffiliated.
Anne Shi and Juan Carlos Esparza Ochoa made major contributions to data collection, storage and analysis. Sociology Making a Difference World Hunger and the Scarcity Fallacy A popular belief is that world hunger exists because there is too little food to feed too many people in poor nations in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere.
Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jews, Muslims, adherents of folk religions, adherents of other religions and the unaffiliated see Appendix C: For Your Review Before you read this chapter, did you think that food scarcity was the major reason for world hunger today?
Readers may wonder, though, what would happen to the population trajectories highlighted in this report if they were projected into the second half of this century.The decline in U.S. population growth is likely due to a confluence of factors: lower levels of immigration, population aging, and declining fertility rates.
A drop in net immigration to the United States is a key factor in the country’s declining population growth rate. M2- Growth and Decline of Sectors In the UK there are three sectors. These are the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The primary sector and the secondary sectors are declining due to a number of reasons such as cheaper imports and the increasing use of technology, taking over jobs which used to be done by hand, e.g.
Business growth and decline stages of the business life cycle: establishment, growth, maturity, post-maturity responding to challenges at each stage of the business life cycle. Population Growth and Decline. Learning Objectives. Understand demographic transition theory and how it compares with the views of Thomas Malthus.
Explain why there is less concern about population growth now than there was a generation ago.
Explain what pronatalism means. Population Growth and Decline in City Neighborhoods. Secondary tabs. Overview (active tab) Full Report; Population Growth and Decline in City Neighborhoods.
To reuse content from Urban Institute, visit mi-centre.com, search for the publications, choose from a list of licenses. A population decline (or depopulation) This means that population growth in this table includes net changes from immigration and emigration.
For a table of natural population changes, see List of countries by natural increase. Population decline by country Country Population.Download